Thursday, December 29, 2011
Cnut the Great (Old Norse: Knútr inn ríki; c. 985 or 995 – 12 November 1035), also known as Canute, was a king of Denmark, England, Norway and parts of Sweden. Though after the death of his heirs within a decade of his own and the Norman conquest of England in 1066, his legacy was largely lost to history, historian Norman F. Cantor has made the paradoxical statement that he was "the most effective king in Anglo-Saxon history".
Cnut was of Danish and Slavic descent. His father was Sweyn Forkbeard, King of Denmark (which gave Cnut the patronym Sweynsson, Old Norse Sveinsson). Cnut's mother was the daughter of the first duke of the Polans, Mieszko I; her name may have been Świętosława (see: Sigrid Storråda), but the Oxford DNB article on Cnut states that her name is unknown.
As a prince of Denmark, Cnut won the throne of England in 1016 in the wake of centuries of Viking activity in northwestern Europe. His accession to the Danish throne in 1018 brought the crowns of England and Denmark together. Cnut held this power-base together by uniting Danes and Englishmen under cultural bonds of wealth and custom, rather than sheer brutality. After a decade of conflict with opponents in Scandinavia, Cnut claimed the crown of Norway in Trondheim in 1028. The Swedish city Sigtuna was held by Cnut. He had coins struck which called him king there, but there is no narrative record of his occupation.
The kingship of England of course lent the Danes an important link to the maritime zone between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland, where Cnut like his father before him had a strong interest and wielded much influence among the Gall-Ghaedhil.
Cnut's possession of England's dioceses and the continental Diocese of Denmark – with a claim laid upon it by the Holy Roman Empire's Archdiocese of Hamburg-Bremen – was a source of great leverage within the Church, gaining notable concessions from Pope Benedict VIII, and his successor John XIX, such as one on the price of the pallium of his bishops. Cnut also gained concessions on the tolls his people had to pay on the way to Rome from other magnates of medieval Christendom, at the coronation of the Holy Roman Emperor. After his 1026 victory against Norway and Sweden, and on his way to Rome for this coronation, Cnut, in a letter written for the benefit of his subjects, stated himself "king of all England and Denmark and the Norwegians and of some of the Swedes".
Read more: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cnut_the_Great
at 9:53 AM
Wednesday, December 28, 2011
The Appin Stewarts, also known as “The Loyal Clan”, is the West Highland branch of the royal surname Stewart, descend from Sir James Stewart of Perston, 4th son of Sir John Stewart of Bonkill, second son of Alexander, the 4th High Steward of Scotland. Sir James was the grandfather of John Stewart of Innermeath, who, through marriage to Isabell NicDougall (MacDougall) of Lorn, became the first Stewart Lord of Lorn. The Lordship of Lorn passed down for 2 more generations to Sir John Stewart, the third Stewart Lord of Lorn.
Appin is located in the West Highlands between Benderloch to the South and the Ballachulish Narrows to the North in modern day Argyll. Today the primary towns include Port Appin and Portnacroish. Both are scenic and are surrounded by forests and water. To the West are islands including the beautiful Isle of Lismore, home to the MacLeas and the Baron Buchull, keeper of the Buchull Mhòr (the crosier of St. Moluag). There are numerous sights of interest including Ardsheal's Cave, the Clach Ruric, Cnap a-Chaolais, Castle Stalker, Eilean Munde and Keil churchyard.
15th centuryIn 1403 a band of Highlanders, said to have been the Clan Stewart of Appin led by Alexander Stewart, the son of the Wolf of Badenoch murdered Sir Malcolm Drummond, chief of the Clan Drummond.
Tradition tell us that in 1445, while returning to his seat at Dunstaffnage Castle from the great cattle tryst at Crieff, Sir John met and fell in love with the daughter of MacLaren of Ardvech. Although married, he began an affair with his new love which one year later produced a son. He was christened Dugald and was to be the first Chief of the Stewarts of Appin. Sir John Stewart was born around 1410, putting him at about 35 when he met the woman that would become his second wife.
After the death of his first wife, Sir John waited, for reasons we are unaware of today, for 5 years until setting up the marriage between himself and Dugald's mother, but it may have had something to do with the politics of the day. In 1463, Sir John set a wedding date and sent for Dugald and his mother to come to Dunstaffnage. Unknown to Sir John, there was a plot to kill the Lord of Lorn. It is not fully known, but it is thought to have been set up by the Lord of the Isles who was in a power struggle with the King of Scots, and who saw it as being in his best interest to neutralize this powerful and loyal representative of the King in the west highlands. The other plotters, which some feel included Colin Campbell, Lord Argyll, Sir John's son-in-law, were primarily represented by Alan MacCoul, the illegitimate grandson of an earlier MacDougall Chief. As the lightly armed wedding party made its way from Dunstaffnage to the small chapel located approximately 180 yards from the castle walls, they were attacked by a superior force led by Alan MacCoul.
Although better armed, MacCoul's force was defeated, but not before mortally wounding Lord of Lorn. Sir John was rushed into the chapel and MacCoul and his henchmen ran into and occupied the deserted Dunstaffnage. With his last breath Sir John married Dugald's mother, legitimizing him and making him the de jure Lord of Lorn. After receiving the last rites, Sir John expired and a new chapter in west highland history was opened. Dugald gathered all the adherents of the Lord of Lorn and with the assistance of the MacLarens laid siege to Dunstaffnage, but to no avail. Unbeknownst to Dugald, Colin Campbell, Lord Argyll who seemed to have been involved in the plot, raised a group of MacFarlanes to aid MacCoul in his struggle against the de jure Lord of Lorn. MacCoul's men with the MacFarlanes met the men of Lorn and MacLaren in what was to be known as the battle of Leac a dotha. It was a fierce battle with both sides leaving the field with very heavy losses.
For the next few years Dugald, who had lost the title of Lord of Lorn through the treachery of his uncle Walter Stewart and the lord of Argyll, but had retained Appin and Lismore (great single malt scotch), consolidated his power and fortified the hunting lodge of Castle Stalker on the Cormant's Rock in Loch Laich (photo above). He also ensured that the Campbells were in no doubt about his displeasure over the loss of the Lordship of Lorn, by having the Campbell territory surrounding Appin regularly raided by the clan. Finally, in 1468, in a bid to finally destroy the power of Appin, Colin Campbell and Walter Stewart, the latter now recognized as the Lord of Lorn (but with no authority in Lorn), organized a massive raid against Dugald and his clan. Alan MacCoul was again involved and they met at what was to be known as the Battle of Stalc. Though losing many men, Dugald virtually destroyed the military strength of the MacFarlanes (a destruction from which they were never to recover) and personally killed Alan MacCoul, his father's murderer. The battle solidified Dugald's claim to Appin and the surrounding area, which was formally granted to him by King James III on the 14th of April 1470.
In 1497 some of the Clan MacLaren stole cattle from the Braes of Lochaber from the Clan MacDonald of Keppoch. The MacDonalds followed them and overtook them at a place called Glenurchy where a battle took place. The MacDonalds won and recovered their cattle. However the MacLarens then looked for assistance from Dugald Stuart of Appin. Another battle then took place where the MacLarens were now joined by the Stuarts against the MacDonalds. During the battle Dugald, the chief of the Clan Stewart of Appin and the Clan MacDonald of Keppoch chief were both killed.
at 9:21 AM
Tuesday, December 27, 2011
The progenitor of this family was Feskin, who flourished in the twelfth century. While it has been claimed that he may have been a Pict, it is more likely that he was a Flemish knight, one of many of that bellicose and ruthless group of warlords who were employed by the Norman kings to pacify their new realm of England after the Conquest. David I, who had been brough up at the English court, sought to employ such men to help him hold the wilder parts of his kingdom, and he granted lands in West Lothian to Freskin. The ancient Pictish kingdom of Moray, in Gaelic, 'Moireabh', was also given to Freskin, to put an end the remnants of the old royal house.
In a series of politically astute moves, he and his sons inter-married with the house of Moray to consolidate their power. There seems little doubt that royal Pictish blood flowed in the veins of Freskin's descendents, and the lines descending of Freskin's are linked heralically by their use of three stars and the colours blue and silver in some fashion on their coats of arms. The Earls of Sutherland descend from what is thought to be Freskin's eldest son. In charters, Freskin's other descedents were designated 'de Moravia', and this, in Lowlands Scots, became 'Murray'.
The Murrays trace their heritage back to the twelfth century and take their name from the great province of Moray, once a local kingdom. It was during this time that the Flemish lords crossed the North Sea and established themselves in the Scottish realm. Among them was Freskin, son of Ollec. Either Freskin or his son William intermarried with the ancient royal house of Moray. The senior line of the Murrays took the surname of Sutherland and became Earls of Sutherland by 1235. Thereafter the chiefs of the Murrays were the Lords of Petty in Moray who also became Lords of Bothwell in Clydesdale before 1253. An heir of this line, Sir Andrew of Murray, was the brilliant young general who led the Scots in 1297 in their first uprising against the English conquerors. He was mortally wounded while winning his famous victory at Stirling Bridge.
His son, Sir Andrew Murray, 4th Lord of Bothwell, third Regent of Scotland, married Christian Bruce, a sister of King Robert the Bruce. He was captured at Roxburgh early in 1333 and was a prisoner in England at the time of the battle of Halidon Hill. He obtained his freedom in time to march to the relief of his wife, who was bravely defending Kildrummy Castle. Sir Andrew commenced with unabated spirit to struggle in the cause of independence and died in 1338. The last Murray Lord of Bothwell died in 1360 of the plague. The chiefship of the Murrays fell into doubt amongst the various scattered branches of the name--from Sutherland and Murray itself, through Perthshire and Stirlingshire to Annandale and the Borders. By the sixteenth century, the Murrays of Tullibardine in Strathearn had assumed the leadership of the Murrays. This was formally confirmed by Bands of Association in 1586 and 1589.
Lairds from all over Scotland recognized the supremacy of the line of Sir John Murray. Sir John became the 1st Earl of Tullibardine in 1606. Thus, the Tullibardine hegemony was firmly established among the Murrays; and the late George Iain Murray, 10th Duke of Atholl was also Marquis of Tullibardine as recognized in Lyon Register as Chief of the Murrays. The 2nd Earl of Tullibardine married Lady Dorothea Stewart, heiress of the Earls of Atholl in 1629 and Marquises from 1676. To their medieval peacock's head crest (motto-Praite), they added the mermaid (motto-Tout Pret), as Lords of Balquidder; and in the seventeenth century, they took the demi-savage holding a sword and a key commemorating the capture of the last Lord of the Isles by the 1st Stewart Earl of Atholl in 1475: hence the motto Furth, Fortune, and Fill the Fetters. (Go forth against your enemies, have good fortune, and return with hostages and booty).
John Stewart, 1st Earl of Atholl (born c. 1440 – 19 September 1512), also known as Sir John Stewart of Balveny, was a Scottish nobleman and ambassador to England (in 1484). He was the oldest child of Joan Beaufort, widowed Queen of James I of Scotland, and her second husband Sir James Stewart, the Black Knight of Lorn.
When that king in 1450 finally overthrew the last Earl of Douglas, he found a fair Lady on his hands. This lady, known from her beauty as the Fair Maid of Galloway, was the heiress to all the great Douglas estates, and, as a child, had been married in succession by William, Earl of Douglas, whom James stabbed in Stirling Castle, and his brother, Earl James, who was overthrown at Arkinholme. While Earl James fled into exile in England, from which he was only to return to die a monk at Lindores, the king procured a divorce for his fair young wife, and married her to his own half-brother, John, son of Queen Joan and the Black Knight of Lorn. He conferred upon the pair the Douglas lordship of Balveny, and they became presently Earl and Countess of Atholl.
He was created Earl of Atholl in around 1457, the first Earl of the eighth creation of the title. He is believed to have had a hand in suppressing the rebellion of the Earl of Ross, the last of the Lords of the Isles. He was buried in Dunkeld Cathedral in Perthshire.
Another Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl, was the son of Alexander, High Steward of Scotland, and the ancestor of this West Highland clan. One of his descendants obtained the Lordship of Lorn through marriage to the heiress of Lorn. Sir John Stewart of Lorn was murdered at Dunstaffnage Castle about 1463, and his son Dougal became 1st chief of Appin. He unsuccessfully tried to recover the Lordship of Lorn.
The clan fought at the Battles of Flodden and Pinkie. At Pinkie the clan was led by Donald Stewart of Invernahyle, known as "Donald nam Ord". In 1645, they supported Montrose at the Battle of Inverlochy and in the same year also fought at Auldearn and Kilsyth. The chief of Appin was outlawed and his lands forfeited, but they were returned to him after the Restoration. The clan joined Viscount Dundee´s campaign in 1688/89 and supported the Jacobites in both Risings. After the Battle of Culloden, the banner of the Appin regiment was one of the few saved from destruction.
In 1765, the estate was sold by the 9th chief, who was succeeded in the chiefship by his cousin Duncan, 6th chief of Ardsheil, who became 10th chief of Appin in 1769. In 1782, he obtained the restoration of his confiscated paternal estate of Lorn.
at 8:26 AM
Thursday, December 22, 2011
Remembering my childhood when my mother referred to Gotland as a place our family came from, and remembering a cast plaque she had of Gotland (upper left in photo), I'm thinking that this is probably where our pre-Iron Age relatives came from. They eventually became the Goths (Gutes)/Celts and moved south into Europe.
Gotland is a county, province, municipality and diocese of Sweden; it is Sweden's largest island and the largest island in the Baltic Sea. At 3,140 square kilometers in area, the region makes up less than one percent of Sweden's total land area. The region also includes the small islands of Fårö and Gotska Sandön to the north, and some tiny islands, including the Karlsö Islands (Lilla and Stora) to the west. The island of Gotland has an area of 2,994 km², the province has 3,183.7 km² (3,151 km² of land excluding the lakes and rivers). The population is 57,221 with about 22,200 living in Visby, the main town. The main sources of income to the island are tourism, agriculture and concrete production from locally mined limestone.
The island is the home of the Gutes (the tribal name of the Gotlandic people), and sites such as Ajvide show that it has been occupied since prehistory. Early on, Gotland became a commercial center and the town of Visby was the most important Hanseatic city in the Baltic Sea. In late medieval times, the island had twenty district courts (tings), each represented by its elected judge at the island-ting, called landsting. New laws were decided at the landsting, which also took other decisions regarding the island as a whole.
The Gutasaga contains legends of how the island was settled by Þieluar and populated by his descendants. It also tells that a third of the population had to emigrate and settle in southern Europe, a tradition associated with the migration of the Goths, whose name has the same origin as Gutes, the native name of the people of the island. It later tells that the Gutes voluntarily submitted to the king of Sweden and asserts that the submission was based on mutual agreement, and notes the duties and obligations of the Swedish King and Bishop in relationship to Gotland. It is therefore not only an effort to write down the history of Gotland, but also an effort to assert Gotland's independence from Sweden.
It gives Awair Strabain as the name of the man who arranged the mutually beneficial agreement with the king of Sweden; the event would have taken place before the end of the 9th century, when Wulfstan of Hedeby reported that the island was subject to the Swedes.
Then, after the land of the Burgundians, we had on our left the lands that have been called from the earliest times Blekingey, and Meore, and Eowland, and Gotland, all which territory is subject to the Sweons; and Weonodland was all the way on our right, as far as Weissel-mouth.
The region is considered by some historians to be the original homeland of the Goths.
The city of Visby and rest of the island were governed separately, and a civil war caused by conflicts between the German merchants in Visby and the peasants they traded with in the countryside had to be put down by King Magnus III of Sweden in 1288. In 1361, Valdemar Atterdag of Denmark invaded the island. The Victual Brothers occupied the island in 1394 to set up a stronghold as a headquarters of their own in Visby. At last, Gotland became a fiefdom of the Teutonic Knights, awarded to them on the condition that they expel the piratical Victual Brothers from their fortified sanctuary. An invading army of Teutonic Knights conquered the island in 1398, destroying Visby and driving the Victual Brothers from Gotland. In 1409 Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen of the Teutonic Knights guaranteed peace with the Kalmar Union of Scandinavia by selling the island of Gotland to Queen Margaret of Denmark, Norway and Sweden.
The number of Arab dirhams discovered on the island of Gotland alone is astoundingly high. In the various hoards located around the island, there are more of these silver coins than at any other site in Western Eurasia. The total sum is almost as great as the number that has been unearthed in the entire Muslim world. These coins moved north through trade between Rus merchants and the Abbasid Caliphate, along the Silver-Fur Road, and the money made by Scandinavian merchants would help northern Europe, especially Viking Scandinavia and the Carolingian Empire, as major commercial centers for the next several centuries.
The Berezan' Runestone, discovered in 1905 in Ukraine, was made by a Varangian (Viking) trader named Grani in memory of his business partner Karl. It is assumed that they were from Gotland.
The authority of the landsting was successively eroded after the island was occupied by the Teutonic Order, then sold to Eric of Pomerania and after 1449 ruled by Danish governors. In late medieval times, the ting consisted of twelve representatives for the farmers, free-holders or tenants. Since the Treaty of Brömsebro in 1645, the island has remained under Swedish rule.
The medieval town of Visby has been entered as a site of the UNESCO World heritage programme. An impressive feature of Visby is the fortress wall that surrounds the old city, dating from the time of the Hanseatic League.
The inhabitants of Gotland traditionally spoke their own language, known as Gutnish. Today however, they have adapted a dialect of Swedish that is known as "Gotländska". In the 13th century, a work containing the laws of the island, called "The Gotlandic law" (Gutalagen), was published in the ancient Gutnish language.
Gotland is famous for its 94 medieval churches, most of which are restored and in active use. These churches exhibit two major styles of architecture: Romanesque and Gothic. The older churches were constructed in the Romanesque style from 1150–1250 AD. The newer churches were constructed in the Gothic architectural style that prevailed from about 1250-1400 AD. The oldest painting inside one of the churches on Gotland stretches as far back in time as the 12th century
The knotwork design subsequently named the "Valknut" (part of my runic tatoo on my left forearm) has the most attested historic instances on picture stones in Gotland, which include being on both the Stora Hammars I and the Tängelgårda stones. There are also thousands of mysterious grooves on the island that are suspected of having been used for archaeoastronomy.
The Long Ships, or Red Orm (original title: Röde Orm), a best-selling Swedish novel written by Frans Gunnar Bengtsson, contains a vivid description of Gotland in the Viking period. The story also mentions alot of our other relatives like Forkbeard and Bluetooth. A section of the book is devoted to a Viking ship setting out to Russia, stopping on its way at Gotland and engaging a pilot from the island who plays an important part in their voyage. Gotlanders of the Viking Era are depicted as city people, more sophisticated and cosmopolitan than other Scandinavians of their time, and proud of their knowledge and skills.
at 8:19 AM
Wednesday, December 21, 2011
Sir William Capell is the son of John Capell. He married Margaret Arundell, daughter of Sir John Arundell and Katherine Chideocke. He died in 1515. Sir William Capell held the office of Alderman of London. He held the office of Lord Mayor of London from 1503 to 1504. He was fined £1,600 by Empson and Dudley, King Henry VII's ministers, and objected to a second trumped-up fine of £2,000. He was imprisoned in the Tower of London until 1509. He held the office of Lord Mayor of London from 1509 to 1510.
When William Capel died in 1515 he left the manor to his widow, Margaret. She resided there until her own death in 1522, at which time it was inherited by their son, Sir Gyles Capel (1486-1556). A good friend of Henry VIII, he was chosen to select the English Knights for jousting against the French at the Field of Cloth of Gold in June 1520.
The Field of Cloth of Gold (French: Le Camp du Drap d'Or) is the name given to a place in Balinghem, between Guînes and Ardres, in France, near Calais. It was the site of a meeting that took place from 7 June to 24 June 1520, between King Henry VIII of England and King Francis I of France. The meeting was arranged to increase the bond of friendship between the two kings following the Anglo-French treaty of 1514. The form "Field of Cloth of Gold" has been in general use in the English language since at least the 18th century. It would be the last meeting between an English or British monarch and a French one until Queen Victoria met with King Louis Philippe I, the last king to rule France, in 1843, excepting the meeting of James V of Scotland and Francis I of France merely sixteen years later.
In his will Sir Giles Capel directed, that his best helmet and his arming sword should be set over his "Funeralls" according to the device of the herald, and for nearly three hundred years the helmet hung on an iron bar over his altar shaped tomb in Rayne church. When the church was pulled down in 1840 all the Capel tombs were destroyed except the fine heraldic brass to Lady Katherine Capel, 1572.
The helmet was removed by the builder, William Parmenter of Bocking. It was found with another on a peg in his workshop by a Miss Courtauld, later Madame Arendrup.
She bought it and gave it to Baron de Cosson, the then greatest living authority on the history of arms and armour. It was exhibited in London and later acquired by the Metropolitan Museum of New York who sent a copy back to England.
Rayne Church: the tower was built by Sir William Capel, whose arms Appear in the brickwork near the foundation, on either side of the belfry door: the old church, supposed to have been built temp. Henry II. was once famous for an altar and chapel on the south aide, erected in honour of the Blessed Virgin: of the present structure the tower is by far the most ancient part: there are memorial windows, besides several mural monuments and a large brass, with arms to the Capel family: there were interred here Sir Giles Capel kt. ob.1556. a distinguished leader at the sieges of Terrouenne and Tourney, and the battle of Spars, all in 1513, and to his wife; Sir Edward Capel kt. oh. 1577 and his daughter Grace. ob. 1587; Sir Henry Capel kt. ob. 1588 and Katherine (Manners) his wife, daughter of Thomas, 1st Earl of Rutland K.G. ; Henry Capel esq. 1615 and Thomas, son of Sir Arthur Capel, 1621: there is also a brass with arms and inscription to Lady Manners, ob. 1572.
at 10:26 AM
Monday, December 19, 2011
Maroitta Countess Direlton Halyburton, Lady Home (Hume), was a 16th-Century Scottish Noblewoman. She varied the spelling of her forename between Mariotta, Marion, and Mary. She is remembered for her Defence and Negotiation of The Surrender of The Castle of Hume after The Battle of Pinkie.
Mariotta was The Daughter of Patrick Earl Direlton Halyburton Of Dirleton Castle. She and her Sisters, Janet and Margaret, were Patrick Halyburton's heirs when he died in 1515. She Married: George Lord Home before 07 Apr 1529.
As The War of The Rough Wooing escalated, Regent Arran sent Soldiers and guns to help defend their Castle at Hume. The English defeated the Scottish army at Pinkie, near Musselburgh, on Saturday 10 Sep 1547. Alexander Home was taken prisoner, and George of Faldonside Ker was injured. While he lay wounded in Edinburgh, The English Army arrived at Hume on 20 September. Mariotta, herself, negotiated the Surrender of Hume Castle with the Earl of Somerset. Her instructions were brought to the castle by Somerset Herald and her sons, Andrew and John, agreed to surrender. The 78 Scottish soldiers within were allowed to leave, and Andrew handed the keys to the English Captain, Sir Edward Dudley.
George and there eldest son, Alexander, were taken to England, and to the Tower of London. Mariotta continued to write to the Earl of Somerset seeking a better solution for her own family and the border people. She complained that people in Scotland said she had given up Hume Castle for money, and marvelled, they thought she could keep the castle of Hume against the whole English army, while the whole Scottish nobility could not keep the field. Mariotta told the Earl that she dared not show her husband his letter and the pledges her people had made to England, and asked him to make new agreements that risked only their possessions, not their loyalty to Scotland.
Eventually Alexander was allowed back to Scotland, and soon on Boxing Day 1548, Hume Castle was taken from The English by a night raid. On 28 December Mariotta sent the news from Edinburgh to Mary of Guise, who had left Holyroodhouse for The New Year at Stirling Castle. By March 1549, Mariotta was back at Hume Castle with a garrison of French and Spanish troops. Now she wrote to Mary of Guise, the troops were disturbing the villagers because they would not pay for their groceries; Mariotta insisted Guise pay the soldiers so they would not trouble the poor folk of Hume. In another letter she advised Guise to maintain discipline amongst the soldiers at this crucial time for the Auld Alliance.
"Your grace maun be very scherp batht on the Franch men and on the Scottis men, or it will nocht be weill; yet ader (either) to do as aferis to tham or lat it be, they mecht never getin sa gud ane tym. Pardon me that writtis sa hamly to your grace for in gud feth it cumis of gud hart as [any] that loifis bath the honour of Scotland and Frans."
Mariotta's original letters to Somerset and Guise are kept in The National Library of Scotland and the Public Record Office at Kew. An English eyewitness, William Patten, described The Bloodless Siege after The Battle Of Pinkie and Mariotta's role. Jean de Beaugué, who later joined The French Army at The Siege Of Haddington, also gave an account of The Siege, which praises Lady Home's resolve and emphasises the role her fears for her Eldest Son may have played in the Negotiation.
at 12:33 PM
The family traces its descent from Thor, who settled in Scotland during the reign of David I of Scotland. Thor was, by tradition son of Sweyn the Viking chief, who was the founder of the Clan Ruthven. The name Ruthven comes from the lands north of Loch Rannoch in Perthshire. In Gaelic these lands are called Ruadhainn. This name may be further related to its Viking roots, since there is an island on an inland fiord in Norway, called 'Roedven' (inland from the town of "Molde). The island has a stave church from around 1200 and the area has long had links to Scotland. The name of the island derives from the main farm on the island and refers to a river outlet from a ravine or gorge. The local pronunciation of the name of the island approximates with the Scottish pronunciation of "Ruthven" ("Rivven"). In 1488, Sir William Ruthven, 1st Lord Ruthven was created Lord Ruthven by summons to Parliament.
During the Anglo-Scottish Wars Sir William Ruthven, 1st Lord Ruthven's eldest son William was killed at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513, and so the title passed to his grandson: William Ruthven, 2nd Lord Ruthven served as am Extraordinary Lord of Session and Keeper of the Privy Seal of Scotland, and had three sons. The eldest of these was:
Murder of David Rizzio
Patrick Ruthven, 3rd Lord Ruthven is celebrated as the principal perpetrator of the murder of David Rizzio, the Italian secretary of Mary, Queen of Scots. Patrick fled to England and died in 1566 after masterminding the murder of the queen's secretary.
at 12:11 PM
Sunday, December 11, 2011
It's another surprise to think that somewhere back in our Celtic/Gothic past that Attilas' daughter married into our family. I've also checked into the Chinese connection and find that we go back into the Han Dynasty. Attila the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns from 434 until his death in 453. He was leader of the Hunnic Empire, which stretched from the Ural River to the Rhine River and from the Danube River to the Baltic Sea. During his reign he was one of the most feared enemies of the Western and Eastern Roman Empires. He crossed the Danube twice and plundered the Balkans, but was unable to take Constantinople. He also attempted to conquer Roman Gaul (modern France), crossing the Rhine in 451 and marching as far as Aurelianum (Orléans) before being defeated at the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains. Subsequently he invaded Italy, devastating the northern provinces, but was unable to take Rome. He planned for further campaigns against the Romans but died in 453.
Appearance and character
There is no surviving first-person account of Attila's appearance. There is, however, a possible second-hand source, provided by Jordanes, who cites a description given by Priscus. It suggests a person of Asian features.
Short of stature, with a broad chest and a large head; his eyes were small, his beard thin and sprinkled with grey; and he had a flat nose and tanned skin, showing evidence of his origin.
The origin of Attila's name is unclear. Pritsak considers it to mean "universal ruler" in a Turkic language related to Danube Bulgarian. Maenchen-Helfen suggests an East Germanic origin and rejects a Turkic etymology: "Attila is formed from Gothic or Gepidic atta, "father", by means of the diminutive suffix -ila." He suggests that Pritsak's etymology is "ingenious but for many reasons unacceptable". However, he suggests that these names were "not the true names of the Hun princes and lords. What we have are Hunnic names in Germanic dress, modified to fit the Gothic tongue, or popular Gothic etymologies, or both. Mikkola thought Attila might go back to Turkish atlïg, "famous"; Poucha finds in it Tokharian atär, "hero." The first etymology is too farfetched to be taken seriously, the second is nonsense."
The name has many variants in modern languages: Atli and Atle in Norse, Attila/Atilla/Etele in Hungarian (all the three name variants are used in Hungary; Attila is the most popular variant), Etzel in German Nibelungenlied and Attila, Atila or Atilla in Turkish.
Attila "The Scourge of God" of the Huns (406 - 453)
50th great grandfather
Princess Ascama the Huns (440 - 527)
Daughter of Attila "The Scourge of God"
Elemund, King Gepidae (490 - 515)
Son of Princess Ascama
Ostragotha (Austrigusa) of the Gepidae (504 - )
Daughter of Elemund, King
Queen Argotta Arotta de Verona of the Ostrogoths (460 - 518)
Daughter of Ostragotha (Austrigusa) of the
Waudbert I DArdennes (475 - 535)
Son of Queen Argotta Arotta de Verona
Brunulphe De Cambrai (543 - 565)
Son of Waudbert I
Daughter of Brunulphe
Clothaire II Meroving (584 - 629)
Son of Fredegonde
Dagobert I King Austrasia (602 - 639)
Son of Clothaire II
Princess Regintrude de Austrasia (631 - 670)
Daughter of Dagobert I King
Irmina Von Oeren (669 - 718)
Daughter of Princess Regintrude de
Bertrada Countess de Laon (695 - 783)
Daughter of Irmina
Bertrada, Empress of the Holy Roman Empire of Laon (720 - 783)
Daughter of Bertrada Countess
Charlemagne Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire Charles I (742 - 814)
Son of Bertrada, Empress of the Holy Roman Empire
Bertrada Von Aachen (775 - 826)
Daughter of Charlemagne Emperor of
Nithard De Ponthieu (795 - 823)
Son of Bertrada
Helgaud De Ponthieu (816 - 926)
Son of Nithard
Herlouin De Ponthieu (865 - 935)
Son of Helgaud
Guillaume I De Ponthieu (914 - 965)
Son of Herlouin
Godchilde De Ponthieu (944 - 1004)
Daughter of Guillaume I
Guillaume I de Alencon (963 - 1028)
Son of Godchilde
Guillaume De Alencon (995 - 1048)
Son of Guillaume I
William De La Ferte (1042 - 1076)
Son of Guillaume
Hamon Massey (1076 - 1140)
Son of William
Hamon Massey (1100 - 1140)
Son of Hamon
Hamon, Baron Dunham Massey (1129 - 1216)
Son of Hamon
Hamon IV Massey (1163 - 1250)
Son of Hamon, Baron Dunham
Hamon V Massey (1212 - 1278)
Son of Hamon IV
Hamon Massey (1242 - 1307)
Son of Hamon V
Isabella Massey (1280 - 1313)
Daughter of Hamon
Katherine Dutton (1300 - 1321)
Daughter of Isabella
Robert de Pulford (1322 - 1409)
Son of Katherine
Lady Joan de Pulford (1348 - 1380)
Daughter of Robert
Sir Thomas Grosvenor (1377 - 1429)
Son of Lady Joan
Sir Robert Grosvenor (1410 - 1464)
Son of Sir Thomas
Lady Anne Grosvenor (1435 - 1520)
Daughter of Sir Robert
Sir William VI De Stanley (1473 - 1529)
Son of Lady Anne
Thomas Stanley (1515 - 1538)
Son of Sir William VI
Peter Stanley (1539 - 1583)
Son of Thomas
John Stanley (1571 - 1619)
Son of Peter
Christopher Stanley (1603 - 1646)
Son of John
Martha U Stanley (1634 - 1665)
Daughter of Christopher
Ralph Blankenship (1662 - 1714)
Son of Martha U
John Buck Blankenship (1695 - 1754)
Son of Ralph
Hudson Blankenship (1729 - 1814)
Son of John Buck
Obedience Blankenship (1770 - 1849)
Daughter of Hudson
Samuel Cothren (1799 - 1868)
Son of Obedience
Benjamin Cothren (1833 - 1900)
Son of Samuel
Sarah Nettie Cothran (1867 - )
Daughter of Benjamin
Edna Iva Mahannah (1890 - 1949)
Daughter of Sarah Nettie
Dwight Stewart (1913 - 1989)
Son of Edna Iva
Ronald Richard (Stewart) Mason
Son of Dwight
at 12:42 PM
ARDARIC died around 460 was the most renowned king of the Gepids. He was famed for his loyalty and wisdom, one of the most trusted adherents of Attila the Hun, who prized him above all the other chieftans. Scholar give credit to the traditional claim that Attila's daughter was one of many wives of Ardaric, king of the Gepids. It is assumed that the 6th-century Gepid rulers descended from Ardaric and that some royal Gepids claimed descent from this marriage in particular, although details are unclear. After Attila's death, Ardaric led the rebellion against Attilas sons and routed them in the Battle of Nedao, thus ending the Huns' supremacy in Eastern Europe.
THE GEPIDS were an East Germanic Gothic (Celts) tribe most famous in history for defeating the Huns after the death of Arrila. The state of the Gepids was commonly known as Gepidia or Kingdom of the Gepids, whose territory is composed of parts of modern day Romania, Slovakia, Hungary, and Serbia.
The Gepids were first mentioned around 260 CE when they participated with the Goths in an invasion in Dacia, where they were settled in Jordanes' time, the mid 6th century, The early origins are reported in Jordanes where their names derive from their later and slower migration from Scandinavia.
The first settlement of the Gepids were at the mouth of the Vistula River, which runs south to north from the Polish Carpathian mountains.
at 11:10 AM
Friday, December 9, 2011
Elizabeth of York (11 February 1466 – 11 February 1503) was Queen consort of England as spouse of King Henry VII from 1486 until 1503, and mother of King Henry VIII of England.
Elizabeth of York is the only English queen to have been a daughter, sister, niece and wife of English monarchs during her lifetime
She was born at Westminster, the eldest child of King Edward IV and his Queen consort, the former Elizabeth Woodville, Lady Grey.
at 12:22 PM
Wednesday, December 7, 2011
This is in addition to the other story I had on Richard de Vere.
Raymond de Vere, Count of Anjou, a.k.a. Rainfroi de Vere, b.c. 705, married, in 733, Melusine de Lusina. She was the daughter of Elinas, King of the Picts, b. c. 690, and Bruithina MacBrude, b. c. 700, and, thus, was a princess of the Southern Picts of Alba. Her totem tribal badge was the Dragon, hence the fairytale connotations. The Dragon Motif was depicted in 1200 AD. on the seal of Hugh de Vere, whilst the Blue Boar, a Druidic caste badge, was [n.b.] derived from the family of Raymond de Vere.
Their son was Count Maelo de Vere, b. c. 735, commander of Emperor Charlemagne's army. From Maelo's own marriage to Charlemagne's sister, Bertha Martel, sprang a succession of Earls of Genney. Maelo's brother was Roland, for whom "Song of Roland" was written.
In the Arthurian and Magdalene traditions of the Ladies of the Lake, Melusine was a fountain fey - an enchantress of the Underwood. Her fountain at Verrières en Forez was called Lusina - meaning Light-bringer - from which derived the name of the Royal House of Lusignan - the Crusader Kings of Jerusalem. The Fount of Melusine was said to be located deep within a thicket wood in Anjou. She was also known as Melusina, Melouziana de Scythes, Maelasanu, and The Dragon Princess.
Melusina, The Dragon Princess
In the 12th Century, Melusine's descendant, Robert de Vere, 3rd Earl of Oxford, and legal pretender to the Earldom of Huntingdon, was appointed as King Richard's steward of the forest lands of Fitzooth. As Lord of the Greenwood, and titular Herne of the Wild Hunt, he was a popular people's champion , and, as a result, he was outlawed for taking up arms against King John. It was he who, subsequently styled Robin Fitzooth, became the prototype for the popular tales of Robin Hood.
at 12:17 PM
Saturday, December 3, 2011
Friday, December 2, 2011
William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke (1146 – 14 May 1219), also called William the Marshal (Guillaume le Maréchal), was an Anglo Norman soldier and statesman. He has been described as the "greatest knight that ever lived" (Stephen Langton). He served five kings — Henry the Young King, Henry II, Richard the Lionheart, John and Henry III — and rose from obscurity to become a regent of England and one of the most powerful men in Europe. Before him, the hereditary title of "Lord Marshal" designated a sort of head of household security for the king of England; by the time he died, people throughout Europe (not just England) referred to him simply as "the Marshal".
In 1152, when William was probably about six years old, his father John Marshal switched sides in the civil war between King Stephen and Empress Matilda. According to one chronicler, when King Stephen besieged Newbury Castle, Stephen used the young William as a hostage to ensure that John kept a promise to surrender the castle. John broke his word, and when Stephen ordered John to surrender immediately or watch as he hanged William in front of the castle, John replied that he go ahead, for "I still have the hammer and the anvil with which to forge still more and better sons!" Fortunately for the child, Stephen could not bring himself to hang young William.
As a younger son of a minor nobleman, William had no lands or fortune to inherit, and had to make his own way in life. As a youth he was sent to Normandy to serve in the household of William de Tancarville, where he began his training to become a knight. Through William de Tancarville, he then served in the household of his mother's brother, Patrick, Earl of Salisbury. In 1168 William's uncle was killed in an ambush by Guy of Lusignan. William was injured and captured in the same battle, but was ransomed by Eleanor of Aquitaine, who was apparently impressed by tales of his bravery. He had been knighted in 1167 and soon found he could make a good living out of winning tournaments. At that time tournaments were dangerous, often deadly, staged battles, not the jousting contests that would come later, and money and valuable prizes could be won by capturing and ransoming opponents. His record is legendary: he supposedly fought in 500 such bouts in his life and never lost once.
By 1170 his stature had risen so far that he was appointed tutor in chivalry for Henry the Young King, son of Henry II of England. The Young King's relations with his father were always fractious, and William stood by Henry during the Revolt of 1173–1174, during which he knighted the Young King. However, in 1182 William Marshal was accused of undue familiarity with Marguerite of France, the Young King's wife, and was exiled from court. He went to the court of Henry II that Christmas to ask for trial by combat to prove his innocence, but was refused. A few months later the Young King died, and on his deathbed he asked William to fulfil his vow of going on a Crusade. William did so, crusading in the Holy Land from 1183 to 1186; while there he vowed to be buried as a Knight Templar.